China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
China, Macao Special Administrative Region
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
State of Palestine
Syrian Arab Republic
United Arab Emirates
The largest continent in the world. It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean in the east, the North Ice Sea in the north, the Indian Ocean in the south, and the European continent in the west. The border with the European continent is not precisely defined. In the past, the River Don was regarded as the border between Asia and Europe. Later, the Ural Mountains began to be regarded as the border.
The Asian Continent is surrounded by the European Continent. Europe, formerly the great peninsula west of the old world known as Eurasia, means Ereop (or Irib) in the Sami tongues, the side of the sun. This name, which passed through Phoenicians from Greece, was named Europa in Greek and those in the west according to the Aegean Sea.
The Don River was regarded as the border between Europe. Later, the Ural Mountains began to be regarded as the border. Today, although this acceptance is widespread, the Russians believe that this border extends from the North Ice Sea to the Caspian Sea;Separating the Russian platform and the Siberia platform; They claim that they are in the mountains of Ob, which are located in the east of the Ural Mountains.
The border of Asia with Africa and Suez Canal with the Oceania is also controversial, as is the border with Europe. Many small islands between Asia and Oceania are an issue in determining this boundary. That is why the figures of the land area of the continent vary between 43.7 million km2 and 44.7 million km2. The east-west length is approximately 10,000 km and the north-south length is 8,300 km.
The continent, which constitutes about one-third of the world’s land, has more than half of the world population in terms of population. The continent, where every human being and every kind of climate is located, is divided into four geographical regions in general: North Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Front Asia.
The history of the Asian continent dates back to prehistoric times. It has been understood that the human race has created a variety of civilizations and created the first human being in this continent, in this continent, much earlier than the other continents, from skeletal, pottery and other items discovered in the context of various excavations and archaeological investigations. In the Holy Qur’an, the first man and the first prophet Adem Aleyhisselam ‘ın forbidden to forget the burden, before Hz. After Eve and then after his eating, he was taken out of Paradise and landed on the earth; Adem Aleyhisselam ‘in India, Serendip (Ceylon) Island, Hazret-i Havva’s Jeddah’
The history of the land is related to its geographical regions. The first known state of Central Asia is the Hun State, which was dispersed after it was ruled for 500 years.Famous Central Asian migrations came to fruition. The people of the region, where the various Turkish states were dominant, were obliged to migrate to the west due to the invasion of the Mongol emperor Cengiz. After the death of Genghis, the Mongol atrocity, which had declined a little, later became an ad for the Timur Khan (1370-1405). Timur lived the justice of Islam from Anatolia to the Pacific Ocean. The Gürganiyye State was established until the 19th century. Later, the Georgian State was destroyed by the corruption of the British. Russians, Central Asia; China has invaded Mongolia, East Turkestan, Tibet and China.
The first great kingdom, known in India, It was founded by Saisunagalar in 582 years.Alexander the Great of BC In India, which he invaded in 327, Buddhists established the greatest state of the time. At the beginning of the eighth century (711 Muslims came to the province and devolved Islam, long established the state as a dominant state in this area.) After the collapse of the last Islamic state, India, which was the colony of some states, especially the British, was able to attain its independence in 1947.
In East Asia, the most well – known land is China. The oldest known information about the history It lasts for 1050 years. China, where various civilizations are founded, resembles Mesopotamia in Asia Minor. Until 1854, much information was not obtained about Japan, which does not have contact with out (other countries except China).
Front Asia is exactly five civilizations. In Mesopotamia, Akkadars, Sumerians, Babylonians, Hittites, Assyrians, and Persians have established civilizations that can survive as far as time. The Roman Empire founded after the Persians and the continuation of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) dominated the region. All the states and civilizations have left their place to the Islamic states and the Islamic civilization with the beginning of Islam spreading to the whole world as Mecca. Hz. The spread of Islam, which started at the time of Muhammad (SAV) and reached to great dimensions, and the people’s learning of the rights of religion, has reached the whole world in the period of Hulefa-i Rashidin (4 great caliphs) Umayyads, Abbasids, Seljuks and Ottomans.
From the Atlantic Ocean to China, from India to Punjab, from north to south, the justice, peace, security and happiness of Islam were taken everywhere. Until the First World War, the Front Asia, which was in the hands of the Ottomans and Muslims, was divided into various intrigues and harvesters. The greatest role in this business was played by the British and divisive groups who were intimate with them and acted together to seize the Middle East.
The geological structure of the land is divided into three parts: the first layer from the old rocks, the second layer from the young rocks, and the third layer from the folds of the third geological time, which is estimated to be between 10 and 70 million years ago. Old rocks; Siberia, China, Arabia and the Hindu peninsula. Young rocks; It ends in Malaysia and Borneo, starting from the Ural Mountains and passing through the Gobi Desert in the form of an S-letter. Young folds of the third geological time; Starting from Turkestan, after reaching Tibet Yaylasına and Himalayas, they extend to the Sumatra islands. The high mountains that converge in these folds are the most striking places in terms of the surface features of Asia.
Some of the peaks of the Caucasus Mountains pass 5600 meters. In the pamirs, the height of the Hindu and other mountains nearest to each other exceeds 6100 meters.Karakurum, Tienşan, Kunlunşan, Himalayalar are the main mountain sililes. The Himalayas are the most important mountain ranges. Along with the overcrowding, it suddenly attracts attention after the large Indian plains. The height of the Kanchencanga Mountain is 8585 m and it has a scorching blueberry. Everest Hill, the world’s tallest hill and 8848 meters in height, is also in these mountains.
Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur frequently in places with third geological time folds. Turkey, Iran, Pakistan and Japan are on this line, and the earthquakes that took place in the last years caused great damage.
Among the world’s tallest and most crowded mountain ranges, the world’s largest springs are also located. The most noteworthy of these are the Tibetan Plateau and the Central Siberian Plateau. East Turkiye Plateau, Pamir Plateau, Iran Plateau, Stannovay and Andır Springs are important springs.
The major rivers of Asia, which are very rich in rivers, allow the large alluvial plains to come to fruition. In Siberia, the Irtish and Yenisey rivers, which are poured to the North Sea, bring a large alluvial rubble to the waterfall. The length of this plain stretching from east to west is 2400 km. Indus in Pakistan, Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Hoank Ho and Yang Celts in China are large rivers that bring alluvial plains to the plains.
Yenisey, Obi and Irtish and Yang Cee, Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra in India are the longest rivers. In Asia, it is very beneficial in providing water for irrigation and hydropower, from irrigated rivers with large lengths. There is also a wide range of benefits in the progress of agriculture and industry. River transport has improved.
There are important plains and rivers as well as important plains, some of them; Western Siberia Plain, Ganj Plain, Mesopotamia, Punjab, China and Turan plains. The Caspian Sea is the only inner sea of the continent. Some geographers also accept the Caspian Sea as a lake. Aral Lake, Baykal Lake, Balkas Lake, Light and Van lakes are among the important lakes of the continent.
Climate and Vegetation Cover
It is best to separate the Asian continent, which has all kinds of climate, into four climatic zones. These; north and northeastern Asia, Central Asia, southern and southeastern Asia, and the Mediterranean and Equatorial regions. The North Ice Sea and the Arctic, north of the continent, totally affect the region’s climate. The sea is frosty except for a few weeks of your life. The rivers can only run for two or three months in the summer. He’s in frost the rest of the time.
In the northern Siberian region, the temperature drops to -50 degrees in winter and in summer it reaches 15 degrees in the warmest season. Immediately after the North, Central Asia has a harsh black climate. Temperatures of the Tibetan Plateau are very high in the region where the Himalaya and other mountain sililes are located. Another feature of the land climate is the lack of precipitation. South and Southeast Asia has abundant rainy temperate monsoon climate.
The precipitation varies according to the seasons, and the greatest effect in rains is the monsoon winds blowing from the sea to the land. Exactly the opposite direction in winter, monsoon winds blowing from land to sea cause the Japanese islands to rain abundantly as they cross India, cross the sea, and cross over Japan.
Temperate Mediterranean climate prevails in regions located on the Mediterranean coast in Asia Minor. This area, which is very hot in summer, is mild and rainy in winter. In the islands in the equatorial region, the equatorial climate with an average temperature of 27 ° C is dominant throughout the year. The warmest region of Asia is Arabia and Iraq. The temperature in Baghdad reaches 50 degrees in the summer.
As in every direction, there are big differences in precipitation. The average precipitation is zero in the northwest deserts. Cava, Sumatra, Borneo islands and Burmese in the south-east of the rainfall average of 3000 millimeters passes. The Mediterranean coast usually has plenty of precipitation in the winter months. In India and Burmese, there is frequent winter drought from behind the rains during the summer season.
In regions where the dry season is long, the crop is planted only once a year. When there are no rains, the crop remains because it can not be planted. This is because of the inadequate precipitation in India and China, and there have been major shortages from time to time. In regions where the dry season is not long, crops can be collected twice a year.
Because the vegetation cover is naturally dyed, the vegetation of the Asian continent also varies with its climate. Near the North Ice Sea, there is a vegetation cover consisting of algae and one or two kinds of plants, which are caused only by the melting of ice due to ice and cold. This type of plant cover, which is found in this plains region where there is no tree, is called “tundra”. To the south of the Tundra area is the area called Tayga. Oak, pine, spruce etc. This unforgettable wooded area, which is a square of trees, transcends the continent like a green belt from east to west. To the south of this Taiga region is the typical character of Central Asia, the steppe and desert strip. The southern border of this lane is found abundant with evergreen trees in the Monsoon region of the Central Asian mountain range. This is more of a coastal zone.
There are plenty of seals (seals), seabirds, polar bears and some seabirds on the North Sea coast. There are a large number of forest animals in Siberian forests such as reindeer, gray bear, wolf, fox, lynx, polar gnaw, squirrel. In the steppe there are animals such as antelope, roe deer, horse, camel, field rats, mountain rats, quail, crouches, swallows, sarcophagus. In Central Asian deserts, animals such as lizards, wild asses and desert owls live.
India and China are places where animals are abundant. But unfortunately, hunting without knowledge and proper care has caused most animals to consume their offspring, and most of them have become exhausted. Kaplan and panda are among the leading species of descent. The jackal, the musk cat and the pharaoh’s palace are common. In India, monkeys, deer, roe deer, Indian rhinoceros, Indian fillets, eagles, peacocks, parrots, pheasants, foxes, cranes, herons, crocodiles, cobra snakes and komoda are the leading animal species. Monkey varieties fill in tropical regions. In Arabia, aphrodisiacs are famous. The Arabian horse is the world’s best breed for this region, and it is valuable.
Asia is very rich in terms of minerals, and all the mines are being extracted from uranium, which is rare in the world, to the most abundant minerals. Oil in the Arabian Peninsula, Siberia and Tibetan Plateau; In Siberia diamond, iron, oil, lead; in the east, gold, iron, manganese; In India, aluminum, mica, manganese, iron; In Pakistan and Afghanistan, chromium is the most important mineral.
The population of over 3 billion of Asia constitutes 60% of the world population. It also has the title of the most crowded continent in the world. 55% of the Asian population lives in the Monsoon region. Siberia is the region with the least population density. The largest area is the Quata Island with 1,155 people and the second with 385 people in India and China. A large number of people from each of the black, white and yellow breeds live on the continent. The places where the greatest cities of the world are located are in the Monsoon Asia. Tokyo and Shanghai are the most crowded places in the world by population. China, India and Japan are the most crowded places in terms of population density. The major cities are Beijing, Seoul, Tokyo, Tianjin, Ankara, Delhi, Karachi, Baghdad, Dhaka, Bombay and Damascus.
It is white in the region from Asia to Asia, India in the north, black race in the Southeast and the Philippines, and yellow race in the Middle and Far East. Mixed races are also present in this continent. The languages spoken in Asia differ from those of 40 separate states.
Asia (Sami, Hindu-Europe, Ural-Altai, China-Tibet) where all of the mother tongue families are located is the third largest after America and Africa in terms of different language spoken. Arabic, Turkish, Russian, Farsi, Chinese, Japanese, Bengali, and Indian languages. Chinese is the most used language in the world. After that comes English.Asiatic people, Islamic, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism,
In India, Muslims and Buddhists who worship the hegemony constitute the majority.People’s culture level is generally quite low. Although most of the people live in cities, they have a life connected to the earth. People living in nomadic life are too big to be underestimated in the general population. In Asia, where social life is very weak (especially in Central Asia and North Asia), life standards are very low.
Asia’s economy is mainly based on agriculture. A large part of Asia is not very suitable for agriculture. However, most of the population is dealing with agriculture. Modern agricultural tools are farmed with largely idiotic tools. Alluvial and volcanic soils can be purchased several times in the year with special methods. Thus, it is possible to feed more than half of the world population. Agriculture is carried out in state farms on Russian soil. In this region, the right to personal property is being made with the new rights recognized. Wheat, oats and rye are the main products. Cotton production in Tashkent and Samarkand where the irrigated water is made is very high. Sunflower grapes and tea are grown in Central Asia and Caucasus.
In Southwest Asia, agriculture is also the biggest business the people have been trying.Afghanistan’s land is barren, reducing the yield. Turkey, Iran and Iraq are places where grains and vegetables grow abundantly.
The population is crowded in Monsoon Asia, where farming is done on very small farms.In general agriculture is done manually. No modern methods of spraying and fertilizing are done. In addition to this, farming is done in Japan in the manner of the semen. Three times as much rice as India is obtained per acre. Pirincin is mostly grown in large valleys in Bangladesh, India, Burmese, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and China. 90% of world rice production is produced in this region.
Sugarcane, sugarbeet, vegetables in India and China, and bananas in Southwest Asia are the most important products. Rubber production is an important measure. Siberian and Indian forests are forestry. Fishing is also a very important place. The fish production of other countries except Russia is 37% of world production. Large Ocean fish are being made open sea fish. Access to the continental shelter is very limited. Central and North Asia is very much behind this subject. The most important transportation route of this region is the railway which is located in the Tiga forest road in Siberia. In other regions, kagni is a common means of transportation. Bicycling is common in the southern regions, especially in China and India.
Asian continent; As part of the ancient world land mass, Asia is the largest continent of the world with a surface area of 44 391,163 km². It is also the world’s highest with an average elevation of 1.010 m. This rise of Asia; owing to the Himalayan Mountains, which have the world’s highest peaks.
Limiting the Asian continent is a very sensitive issue. Many geographers have put forward ideas on this issue.
Asia is 8.490 km wide in north-south direction. To the far north of the continent is the Buru Burnu (1 ° 14 ’17’ ‘K parallel) on the southernmost Malacca peninsula, while Chelyuskin Burnu (77 ° 42′ 55 ” K parallel) is located in Russia. If we are based on the Islands, Severneya is 10 245 km between Zemlya Island (81 ° 16 ’23’ ‘K parallel) and Indonesia’s Rudi Islands (11 ° 00′ 19 ” G Parallel).
The continent is in the east-west direction; It is 8 200 km between Avlaka Burnu (25 ° 38 ’59’ ‘D meridian) of Gökçeada, the westernmost point of Turkey and Dejnev Burnu (169 ° 40’ 17 ” D meridian) on the Çukçi peninsula.
The special position of the ship is; Asia is limited to the North Ice Sea from the north. In the north east,
The continent is bounded by the Great Ocean (Pacific Ocean) in the east. However, on the coastal openings are the islands and the islands forming the parts of the north-south oriented mountains rising from the ocean floor over the water. Here; Aleut, Japan, Bonin, and Marian, and the island and team island gorges, which are located in the western part of a line called “Andesite Line”, belong to the Asian mainland.
The southeastern border of the continent is somewhat complicated, and the line passing between the Sunda Islands and the Arafura Sea can be regarded as the border. The continent is bounded by the Indian Ocean from the south.
The western border of Asia is a rather controversial issue. Although many researchers have different opinions in this regard, Ural Mountains, Ural River, Manic Lodge, Black Sea, Bosphorus, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean, Suez Canal and Red Sea. Though Anatolia and the Caucasus to the east of this line are counted from Asia, Thrace is included in Europe.
The greatest in the world are gathered in Asia. Asia; The largest of the continents (44 391 163 km²) and the highest average elevation (1 010 m) is. In addition, the world’s highest peak (Everest hill, 8 848 m), the largest lake (Hazar Lake or Sea), the deepest lake (Baykal Lake), the lowest sea level in the world (Lake Lut, lake surface -392 m) the world’s lowest basin (Turfan Basin -154 m) is located in Asia.
Asia; With a population of over 3.5 billion, it is the most populous continent in the world.The most populous country in the world, China (1 284 303 705 people, estimated 2002) is located in this continental Europe. It is the birthplace of Asian religions. Among Semali religions, all three religions of Islam, Christianity and Judaism have emerged in the Middle East. Buddhism and Hinduism, both of which appeal to wider masses, are religions of Asian origin. Asia is also one of the five civilizations. Turkish, Chinese and Indian civilizations have been continuing their existence for thousands of years in this continent.There are over 100 languages spoken on the continental shelf. People living in the east of the continent are yellow, in the southern islands black and in the rest of them are white people.